Parlare di matti

Parlare di matti

L’instabilità mentale non è di certo un tema semplice da trattare: il rischio è sempre quello di aggiungere qualcosa di errato, di eccessivo e, soprattutto, è facile cadere nei classici stereotipi che sono ad un passo dall’essere offensivi. Una delle arti che più ha trattato l’argomento, tolta la pittura (basti pensare ad Edvard Munch o Josef Forster), è il cinema. Raccontandone sia gli aspetti leggiadri e poetici, come in “Blue Jasmine” di Woody Allen, pellicola che racconta bene come sia complesso gestire un disturbo in un contesto normale, sia quelli tetri e spaventosi, come nel capolavoro “Melancholia” di Lars von Trier, il cinema ha tutti gli strumenti per parlarne apertamente e senza inutili fronzoli.

Il disturbo mentale affascina da sempre i cineasti ma per quale ragione? Probabilmente perché cambia gli assetti delle cose, ribalta le situazioni, lascia possibilità alla trama di evolversi in modi inaspettati e da’ la possibilità di indagare la cartina tornasole della malattia: gli altri.

Nel panorama italiano mi piacerebbe parlare di “La pecora nera”, film del 2010 diretto e interpretato da Ascanio Celestini, che è un buon punto di partenza per indagare la condizione di chi viveva in un manicomio.

La trama è semplice: negli anni ‘60 un giovane ragazzo della provincia romana vive per 35 anni chiuso in un manicomio, sia per la sua latente malattia mentale sia per problemi che affliggono la sua famiglia.

Il modo in cui Nicola, il protagonista, racconta la vita in manicomio è l’espediente narrativo vincente per reggere lo sviluppo della storia e per arrivare a parlare di un aspetto fondamentale di questo tipo di pellicole: l’amore, raccontato e vissuto da chi non ha modo di affrontarlo in modo razionale, interessante proprio perché andrebbe vissuto così, fuori dalla normalità.

Nicola, è da sempre innamorato di Marinella, una bambina che gli fa battere il cuore, ma che, da adulta, non lo ricambierà. È un amore ossessivo, di un matto che la disturba ogni giorno per passare anche solo cinque minuti con lei, che vive questa’amore irrazionalmente, per questo senza mai arrendersi.

Il film non è, però, circoscrivibile al genere romantico, in primis per la trama scomposta che salta dal presente al passato tramite onirici flashback e che si focalizzano su ben altri temi.

La fotografia favolistica, insieme agli oggetti di scena e gli abiti di alcuni personaggi, accompagnano i sopramenzionati flashback, così come per le scene notturne in campagna e in manicomio che riflettono lo sguardo fantastico e poetico di Nicola e del regista. Negli sproloqui che Nicola intrattiene col suo amico di stanza (uno splendido Tirabassi, leggero, credibile, in una parola: matto), gioca con le sue paure, con le sue deduzioni, sempre assurde ma sempre logiche, che si confondono con i sentimenti di un bambino che vive il mondo dei grandi.

Durante il film, l’aspetto politico e sociale nel racconto dell’infermità, che rivela la poca utilità dell’essere chiuso in manicomio fino ad arrivare a risultare addirittura controproducente, diventa fondamentale. Il racconto di questi luoghi, dunque, non può che diventare estremamente critico nei confronti di una società che si definisce civile ma che nasconde un problema in un istituto, piuttosto che affrontarlo di petto.

Nonostante quanto detto poco fa, l’Italia si è dimostrata presto un paese all’avanguardia nella cura degli instabili mentali: nel 1978, con la legge Basaglia, i manicomi vengono definitivamente chiusi.

In un’intervista al Maurizio Costanzo Show, Basaglia sentenzia:

«Non è importante tanto il fatto che in futuro ci siano o meno manicomi e cliniche chiuse, è importante che noi adesso abbiamo provato che si può fare diversamente, ora sappiamo che c’è un altro modo di affrontare la questione; anche senza la costrizione

Fu qui la vera rivelazione, in anticipo su tutti i paesi europei (e non): il matto non ha bisogno di gabbie, mura, istituti, ma ha bisogno di una terapia, un percorso che non deve per forza essere prestabilito e obbligato, come qualsiasi altra malattia.

E “La Pecora Nera” sottolinea proprio come una vita così, costretta e invivibile, non abbia portato poi a nessun risultato tangibile e i favolosi anni ’60, di cui più volte si parla nella storia, alla fine siano una mera truffa, più degli anni ’70 che sono uno schifo.

Cambia l’Italia, i manicomi chiudono e cambiano anche le malattie mentali, le dipendenze, i problemi sociali.

Riportando un presupposto sociologico, per far felice colui che tutti sapete, le malattie mentali vanno di pari passo con la società e con le tendenze in cui siamo immersi quotidianamente.

Film a me molto caro che parla di disturbi mentali e dipendenze, ma in modo originale e scanzonato, è “Maledetto il giorno che t’ho incontrato”, film del 1992 di Carlo Verdone con Margherita Buy.
Un uomo e una donna si incontrano per sbaglio da uno psicanalista e cominciano una relazione fatta di amicizia, poi di amore e poi di psicofarmaci. Il viaggio che intraprenderanno in Cornovaglia per la realizzazione di un documentario su Jimmy Hendrix, diventerà un disastro e la loro instabilità non farà che far emergere equivoci e problemi tutti da ridere.
E’ uno splendido film, leggero ma molto malinconico che ci da’ la possibilità di approcciarci alla visione inedita di due instabili mentali accettati dalla società e che sdogano l’uso dei calmanti.

Tutte queste pellicole però vertono su un plot point fondamentale, a mio parere il punto in cui sogno e realtà si incontrano per poi esplodere assieme, ovvero il momento in cui l’instabile (o la coppia di instabili) vivono la fusione col mondo esterno, col mondo che ci permettiamo di chiamare normale e che li giudica con gli occhi di un matematico che entra in un negozio di giocattoli, ovvero senza conoscerne regole, presupposti e codici e perciò vivendone solo l’aspetto formale senza capirne il significato. In quei momenti la storia prende la piega più triste, quella che ci mette davanti all’evidenza.

In “La pecora nera, Nicola decide finalmente di dichiararsi a Marinella. La aspetta nel parcheggio del supermercato in cui lavora ed è proprio lì che avviene la rottura tra il mondo dei normali e il mondo dei matti.

Ci si sopporta, ci si sostiene fin quando si rimane entrambi sui propri binari, ma appena qualcuno osa, si apre, quello è il momento in cui si scappa da un mondo che forse non si può capire.

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